Bulgarian Millet

Ethnic map of the Balkans from 1861, by Guillaume Lejean. Bulgarians are marked with light green.

Territoried under the jurisdiction of the Bulgarian Exarchate (1870–1913).

Map of European Turkey after the Treaty of Berlin. Macedonia and Adrianople areas, which were given back from Bulgaria to the Ottomans are shown with green frontiers.

Bulgarian Millet or Bulgar Millet was an ethno-religious and linguistic community within the Ottoman Empire from the mid-19th to early 20th century. Initially the Millet were recognized as the Bulgarian Uniates, and then the Bulgarian Orthodox Christians (Eksarhhâne-i Millet i Bulgar).[1] At that time the classical Ottoman Millet-system began to degrade with the continuous identification of the religious creed with ethnic identity and the term millet was used as a synonym of nation.[2] In this way, in the struggle for recognition of a separate Church, the modern Bulgarian nation was created.[3] The establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870, meant in practice recognition of a separate Bulgarian nationality,[4] and in this case the religious affiliation became a consequence of national allegiance.[5] The founding of an independent church, along with the revival of Bulgarian language and education, were the crucial factors that strengthened the national consciousness and revolutionary struggle, that led to the creation of an independent nation-state in 1878.


1 History

1.1 Background
1.2 School and Church struggle
1.3 Recognition of the Bulgarian Millet
1.4 Independence of Bulgaria
1.5 Thrace and Macedonia
1.6 Dissolution

2 See also
3 References and notes
4 Sources

All Orthodox Christians, including Bulgarians, in the Ottoman Empire were subordinated to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which was dominated by Greek Phanariotes by the end of the 19th century. The Orthodox Christians were included into the Rum Millet. Belonging to this Orthodox community grew more important to the common people than their ethnic origins and the Balkan Orthodox people identified themselves simply as Christians. Nevertheless, ethnonymes never disappeared and some form of ethnic identification was preserved as evident from a Sultan’s Firman from 1680, which lists the ethnic groups in the Balkan lands as follows: Greeks (Rum), Albanians (Arnaut), Serbs (Sirf), Vlachs (Eflak) and Bulgarians (Bulgar).[6]
During the late 18th century, the Enlightenment in Western Europe pr

Marjaana Kella

This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)

This article needs more links to other articles to help integrate it into the encyclopedia. Please help improve this article by adding links that are relevant to the context within the existing text. (January 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

This biography of a living person needs additional citations for verification. Please help by adding reliable sources. Contentious material about living persons that is unsourced or poorly sourced must be removed immediately, especially if potentially libelous or harmful. (February 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

(Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Marjaana Kella (born 1961 in Orimattila, Finland) is a Finnish photographer .[1]

Kella was a student at the Free Art School from 1985 until 1986, and moved on to study photography at the University of Art and Design Helsinki from 1987 to 1993. In 2014 she received a Doctorate in photography from Alto University, her dissertation was entitled ‘Translations – Landscape, the face and the presentation of the photograph.
Life and Work[edit]
Kella has been teaching since the 1990s. She works on the MA program and is a Senior Lecturer in contemporary art and photography. In 2014 she was appointed vice-dean of the Academy of Fine Arts of the University of the Arts Helsinki.[2]
Her photographic work reflects on the genre of portraiture, challenging its traditional composition to question identity, reality, and authenticity. Talking about her work, Marjaana Kella has stated “My photographs are kind of studies of perception and experience, or of the interface between people’s external and internal spaces.”
The series Reversed (1996–1997) presents unusual portraits of individuals turning away from the camera, represented only by the back of their heads. The portraits, almost non-gestural, therefore ignore the subject’s facial features to create pictorial, and textured compositions renewing the genre’s aesthetic.
For Hypnosis(1997–2001) the artist scrutinises the suspended moment of hypnosis during which her subjects’ effort at self-representation are disrupted.[3]
Solo exhibitions[edit]

2006 Blush – 15 Apr – 21 May 2006 – Van Zoetendaal, Amsterdam
2004 Portraits – 13 May – 27 Jun 2004 – Landesgale

Jean-Marie Alexandre

Jean-Marie Alexandre

Member of the European Parliament

In office
9 September 1987 – 18 July 1994


Personal details

25 November 1946 (1946-11-25) (age 70)
Souchez, France


Political party
French Socialist Party


Jean-Marie Alexandre is a French politician, who, from 1987 until 1994, was a Member of the European Parliament representing France for the Socialist Party[1]
Parliamentary Service[edit]

Vice-Chair, Committee on Regional Policy and Regional Planning (1989–1992)
Vice Chair, Delegation for Relations with the Gulf States (1992–1994)


^ “Jean-Marie ALEXANDRE”. europarl.europa.eu. Retrieved 2015-09-25. 

Diomede, Alaska

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia’s quality standards. The specific problem is: This article is about the city of Diomede, whose corporate limits are coterminous with Little Diomede Island. This article’s content leaves lots of confusion as to whether it’s about the city or the island, and why we would need separate articles if it’s actually about the latter. Please help improve this article if you can. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Diomede, Alaska


Photo of Diomede (Inalik) village on the west coast

Diomede, Alaska

Location in Alaska

Coordinates: 65°45′30″N 168°57′06″W / 65.75833°N 168.95167°W / 65.75833; -168.95167Coordinates: 65°45′30″N 168°57′06″W / 65.75833°N 168.95167°W / 65.75833; -168.95167

United States


Census Area

October 28, 1970[1]


 • Mayor
Cassandra Ahkvaluk

 • State senator
Donny Olson (D)

 • State rep.
Neal Foster (D)


 • Total
2.8 sq mi (7.4 km2)

 • Land
2.8 sq mi (7.4 km2)

 • Water
0 sq mi (0 km2)

95 ft (29 m)

Population (2010)

 • Total

Time zone
Alaska (AKST) (UTC-9)

 • Summer (DST)

ZIP code

Area code

FIPS code


Diomede (native name Iŋaliq, meaning “the other one” or “the one over there”[2]) is a city in the Nome Census Area of the Unorganized Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska, located on Little Diomede Island.[3] Little Diomede is the smaller of the two Diomede Islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between the Alaskan mainland and the Russian Far East. Its neighboring island is the Big Diomede, Russia, behind the International Date Line, and is less than 2.4 miles (3.9 km) away. The populated area of Diomede lies on the west side of Little Diomede and is the only settlement on the island. The population was 115 at the 2010 census.

Webcam[dead link] across the Bering Strait


1 Geography
2 Geology
3 History

3.1 1648–1867
3.2 1880s–1920s
3.3 1940s
3.4 1950s
3.5 1970s
3.6 1990s

4 Demographics
5 Community

5.1 Electricity
5.2 Water and disposal
5.3 Education
5.4 Health care and emergency services

6 Economy

6.1 Employment
6.2 Taxes

7 Transportation


Miroslava may refer to:

Miroslava (actress), Mexican actress in the 1950s

Miroslava (film), the title of a 1993 film about the actress

Miroslava of Bulgaria, a daughter of tsar Samuil of Bulgaria
Miroslava, Iași, a commune in Iaşi County, Romania

People with given name Miroslava are:

Miroslava Němcová, Czech politician, former speaker of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic
Mirka Federer, birth name Miroslava Vavrinec, wife and manager of Roger Federer
Miroslava Jánošíková (born 1969), Czech Olympic judoka
Miroslava Jaškovská, Czech cross-country skier

This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Miroslava.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.



Isopeda villosa discarding its old exoskeleton

Scientific classification






L. Koch, 1875

Type species

Isopeda vasta
L. Koch, 1867


See text.


21 species

Isopeda is a genus of huntsman spiders occurring in Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, and the Philippines.[1] The genus was first described by Ludwig Carl Christian Koch in 1875.[1]
According to The World Spider Catalog, Version 12.5:[1]

Isopeda alpina Hirst, 1992 — New South Wales, Victoria
Isopeda binnaburra Hirst, 1992 — Queensland
Isopeda brachyseta Hirst, 1992 — New South Wales
Isopeda canberrana Hirst, 1992 — New South Wales, Victoria
Isopeda catmona Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
Isopeda deianira Thorell, 1881 — New Guinea
Isopeda echuca Hirst, 1992 — New South Wales, Victoria
Isopeda girraween Hirst, 1992 — Queensland
Isopeda igraya Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
Isopeda leishmanni Hogg, 1903 — Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria

Isopeda leishmanni hoggi Simon, 1908 — Western Australia

Isopeda magna Hirst, 1992 — Western Australia, South Australia
Isopeda montana Hogg, 1903 — South Australia, Victoria
Isopeda neocaledonica Berland, 1924 — New Caledonia
Isopeda parnabyi Hirst, 1992 — Queensland, New South Wales
Isopeda prolata Hirst, 1992 — New South Wales, Victoria
Isopeda queenslandensis Hirst, 1992 — Queensland, New South Wales
Isopeda subalpina Hirst, 1992 — Victoria
Isopeda sungaya Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
Isopeda vasta L. Koch, 1867 — Queensland
Isopeda villosa L. Koch, 1875 — New South Wales
Isopeda woodwardi Hogg, 1903 — South Australia


^ a b c d Platnick, Norman I. (10 December 2011). “Fam. Sparassidae”. The World Spider Catalog, Version 12.5. New York, NY, USA: American Museum of Natural History. doi:10.5531/db.iz.0001. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isopeda.

This spider-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority

Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority

Authority overview

November 2005 (2005-11)

Fort Bend County, Texas

1 Fluor Daniel Dr
Sugar Land, TX 77478


The Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority (FBCTRA), also called the Fort Bend Grand Parkway Toll Road Authority (FBGPTRA), operates toll roads in Fort Bend County and is headquartered at 1 Fluor Daniel Dr in Sugar Land in the U.S. state of Texas.
Created in November 2005.
The FBCTRA uses the EZ TAG system, which is interoperable with the TxTag issued by the Texas Department of Transportation and the TollTag issued by the North Texas Tollway Authority. The authority has no current plans to accept any other tolling agencies tags.[1]

Length (mi)
Length (km)
Southern or western terminus
Northern or eastern terminus

99 !SH 99 Toll

I-69 / US 59
Fort Bend Westpark Tollway / FM 1093

Section E; The FBGPTRA operates the SH-99 Toll (Grand Parkway) from I-69/US-59 to FM-1093 (Fort Bend Westpark Tollway) as a toll road with a series of tolled overpasses; The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates the adjoining segment of the Grand Parkway from FM-1093 north to US-290.

Fort_Bend !Fort Bend Parkway Toll Road

Westpark !Fort Bend Westpark Tollway

In July 2008 the authority converted the Fort Bend Parkway to EZ-Tag only, completely eliminating cash transactions for the agency and resulting in reduced toll collection and maintenance costs.
Fort Bend County Toll Road Authority

^ Screenshot of FBCTRA’s reply email –

This Texas-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.



This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)


Rochester, New York

Broadcast area
Rochester and Vicinity

98.9 The Buzz

Everything. All the time!

98.9 MHz (also on HD Radio)
98.9-2 FM: “Blues” (“The Delta”)

First air date
1946 (as WHFM)

Rock, Variety

37,000 watts

172 meters


Facility ID

Callsign meaning
The BuZz (branding)

Former callsigns
WHFM (1946-1985)
WZKC (1985-1986)
WKLX (1986-1998)
WBBF-FM (1998-2000)

Entercom Communications
(Entercom Rochester License, LLC)

Sister stations

Listen Live


WBZA is a rock station in Rochester, New York, broadcasting at 98.9 FM. It is owned by Entercom Communications, who purchased the station from Sinclair Broadcasting in 1999. Before its current format, the station played Oldies as WBBF (and before that, WKLX) before that station moved to a lower-powered station broadcasting on 93.3 FM. The station’s studios are located at High Falls Studios downtown, and its transmitter tower is on Rochester’s west side.
The 98.9 frequency in Rochester has been in continuous use since 1946. Before signing on at its current dial position, the direct predecessor of WBZA, then known as WHFM, broadcast in the old 42-50 mHz FM band. Founded as a sister station to WHAM by Stromberg-Carlson, its daily operation dates back to 1939, making it one of the very oldest suriviving FM stations in the United States.
As WHFM, the programming format was top-40/CHR from the late 1960s until early 1985. In early 1985 the call letters were changed to WZKC, and the format changed to country music. In the summer of 1986 both format and call letters were changed again, with WKLX adopting a “classic hits” format (primarily rock music from the mid 1960s to the mid 1970s). In April 1988, the format was changed to “classic oldies” (pop music from the mid 1950s to early 1970s) and at the same time the transmitter site was relocated into the city of Rochester.
As WBZA, the station played 1980s music up until 2004, when it shifted to classic rock, while retaining the “Buzz” moniker. With the demise of hard rock station WNVE in 2007, WBZA shifted from classic rock to mainstream rock at roughly th

Gymnocarpos bracteatus

Gymnocarpos bracteatus

Conservation status

Vulnerable (IUCN 3.1)

Scientific classification




Core eudicots




G. bracteatus

Binomial name

Gymnocarpos bracteatus
(Balf.f.) Thulin

Gymnocarpos bracteatus is a species of plant in the Caryophyllaceae family. It is endemic to Yemen. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

Miller, A. 2004. Gymnocarpos bracteatus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 21 August 2007.

This Caryophyllales article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Karl Gesele

Karl Gesele

Gesele (on the left) as SS-Sturmbannführer with Hermann Fegelein.

15 August 1912
Riedlingen, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire

8 April 1968 (1968-04-09) (aged 55)
Friedrichshafen, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany

 Nazi Germany

Waffen SS

Years of service


Begleit-Bataillon Reichsführer-SS
Sturmbrigade Reichsführer SS
16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS
37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow

World War II

Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross I Class
Iron Cross II Class
German Cross in Gold
General Assault Badge in Silver

Karl Gesele (15 August 1912 – 8 April 1968) was a SS-Standartenführer (Colonel) in the Waffen-SS during World War II. He was awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross, which was awarded to recognize extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership by Nazi Germany during World War II.


1 Early life
2 World War II
3 Post war
4 References
5 Further reading

Early life[edit]
Karl Gesele was born on the 15 August 1912 in Riedlingen. After leaving school he volunteered to join the SS in August 1931 (SS service number: 10,596) and served with the 13 SS Standarte Regiment until 1933, when he joined the Political Readiness Detachment Württemberg.
In October 1934, he was given command of a platoon in the 9th Company, SS Standarte Deutschland and also commanded platoons in the 10th and 17th Companies. In December 1936 he was made the Adjutant of the IV.Battalion, SS Standarte Deutschland. In May 1938, Gesele obtained his first Company command, when he took over the 10th Company.
World War II[edit]
During World War II after the Polish Campaign where he was awarded the Iron Cross I & II class and later fought in the Battle of France. He was posted to the SS-Junkerschule in Bad Tölz in August 1940 as an Instructor in tactics. He returned to the front as Chief of Staff of the SS Cavalry Brigade, which started the extermination of the Jews in Ukraine and Byelorussia in the summer of 1941.[1] He was awarded the German Cross in Gold in May 1942 just before he was forced to leave the Brigade because of illness.
After he recovered he was given command of the Begleit-Bataillon Reichsführer-SS in October 1942, which was later reformed as the Sturmbrigade Reichsführer SS and stationed in France. Gesele remained in France until the Allie